Fernanda Baissi es Coordinadora de Comunicación Institucional de Fundación CEDHA. Especialista en el manejo de sitios open source.

The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha, Qatar, took place from 26 November to 8 December 2012. It included the eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the eighth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 8). The conference also included meetings by five subsidiary bodies: the thirty-seventh sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 37) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 37), the second part of the seventeenth session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 17), the second part of the fifteenth session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the UNFCCC (AWG-LCA 15) and the second part of the Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 1).

Marking the first time that UN climate change negotiations took place in the Middle East, the conference drew approximately 9,000 participants, including 4,356 government officials, 3,956 representatives of UN bodies and agencies, intergovernmental organizations and civil society organizations, and 683 members of the media.

Negotiations in Doha focused on ensuring the implementation of agreements reached at previous conferences. The package of “Doha Climate Gateway” decisions adopted on the evening of Saturday, 8 December, included amendments to the Kyoto Protocol to establish its second commitment period. Having been launched at CMP 1 in 2005, the AWG-KP terminated its work in Doha. The parties also agreed to terminate the AWG-LCA and negotiations under the Bali Action Plan. Key elements of the outcome also included agreement to consider loss and damage, “such as” institutional mechanism to address loss and damage in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

While developing countries and observers expressed disappointment with the lack of ambition in outcomes on Annex I countries’ mitigation and finance,  most agreed that the conference had paved the way for a new phase, focusing on the implementation of the outcomes from negotiations under the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA, and advancing negotiations under the ADP.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE UNFCCC AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL

The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, which sets out a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system. The Convention, which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has 195 parties.

In December 1997, delegates to COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, agreed to a Protocol to the UNFCCC that commits industrialized countries and countries in transition to a market economy (EITs) to achieve emission reduction targets. These countries, known as Annex I parties under the UNFCCC, agreed to reduce their overall emissions of six greenhouse gases by an average of 5% below 1990 levels between 2008-2012 (first commitment period), with specific targets varying from country to country. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 and now has 192 parties.

LONG-TERM NEGOTIATIONS IN 2005-2009: Convening in Montreal, Canada, at the end of 2005, the first session of the CMP decided to establish the AWG-KP under Protocol Article 3.9, which mandates consideration of Annex I parties’ further commitments at least seven years before the end of the first commitment period. COP 11 created a process to consider long-term cooperation under the Convention through a series of four workshops known as “the Convention Dialogue.”

In December 2007, COP 13 and CMP 3 in Bali, Indonesia, resulted in agreement on the Bali Roadmap on long-term issues. COP 13 adopted the Bali Action Plan and established the AWG-LCA with a mandate to focus on mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and a shared vision for long-term cooperative action. Negotiations on Annex I parties’ further commitments continued under the AWG-KP. The deadline for concluding the two-track negotiations was in Copenhagen in 2009. In preparation, both AWGs held several negotiating sessions in 2008-2009.

COPENHAGEN: The UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, took place in December 2009. The high-profile event was marked by disputes over transparency and process. During the high-level segment, informal negotiations took place in a group consisting of major economies and representatives of regional and other negotiating groups. Late in the evening of 18 December these talks resulted in a political agreement: the “Copenhagen Accord,” which was then presented to the COP plenary for adoption. After 13 hours of debate, delegates ultimately agreed to “take note” of the Copenhagen Accord. In 2010, over 140 countries indicated support for the Accord. More than 80 countries also provided information on their national mitigation targets or actions. Parties also agreed to extend the mandates of the AWG-LCA and AWG-KP until COP 16 and CMP 6.

CANCUN: The UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun, Mexico, took place in December 2010, where parties finalized the Cancun Agreements. Under the Convention track, Decision 1/CP.16 recognized the need for deep cuts in global emissions in order to limit global average temperature rise to 2°C. Parties agreed to keep the global long-term goal under regular review and consider strengthening it during a review by 2015, including in relation to a proposed 1.5°C target. They took note of emission reduction targets and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) communicated by developed and developing countries, respectively (FCCC/SB/2011/INF.1/Rev.1 and FCCC/AWGLCA/2011/INF.1, both issued after Cancun). Decision 1/CP.16 also addressed other aspects of mitigation, such as: measuring, reporting and verification (MRV); and reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries, including conservation (REDD+).

The Cancun Agreements also established several new institutions and processes, including the Cancun Adaptation Framework and the Adaptation Committee, and the Technology Mechanism, which includes the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was created and designated as a new operating entity of the Convention’s financial mechanism governed by a 24-member board. Parties agreed to set up a Transitional Committee tasked with the Fund’s design and a Standing Committee to assist the COP with respect to the financial mechanism. Parties also recognized the commitment by developed countries to provide US$30 billion of fast-start finance in 2010-2012, and to jointly mobilize US$100 billion per year by 2020.

Under the Protocol track, the CMP urged Annex I parties to raise the level of ambition towards achieving aggregate emission reductions consistent with the range identified in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and adopted Decision 2/CMP.6 on land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The mandates of the two AWGs were extended for another year.

DURBAN: The UN Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa, took place from 28 November to 11 December 2011. The Durban outcomes cover a wide range of topics, notably the establishment of a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, a decision on long-term cooperative action under the Convention and agreement on the operationalization of the GCF. Parties also agreed to launch the new ADP with a mandate “to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties.” The ADP is scheduled to complete negotiations by 2015. The outcome should enter into effect from 2020 onwards.

BONN CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE 2012: This meeting took place from 14-25 May 2012 in Bonn, Germany. The conference comprised the 36th sessions of the SBI and SBSTA. It also included AWG-LCA 15, AWG-KP 17 and the first session of the ADP. Under the AWG-KP, the focus was on issues to be finalized for adopting a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol and for the AWG-KP to conclude its work at CMP 8. Many outstanding questions remained, including the length of the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol and carry-over of surplus units.

Under the AWG-LCA, debates continued on which issues require consideration so that the AWG-LCA can finalize its work at COP 18. Developed countries stressed “significant progress” and the various new institutions established in Cancun and Durban. Some developing countries identified the need to continue discussing issues required to fulfill the Bali Action Plan mandate.

Under the ADP, discussions centered on the agenda and the election of officers. After nearly two weeks of discussions, the ADP plenary agreed on the Bureau arrangements and adopted the agenda, initiating two work streams: one addressing matters related to paragraphs 2-6 of Decision 1/CP.17 (post-2020 regime) and the other addressing paragraphs 7-8 (enhancing the level of ambition during the pre-2020 period), and agreed on the election of officers.

BANGKOK CLIMATE CHANGE TALKS 2012: This informal session took place from 30 August – 5 September 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand. Under the ADP, parties convened in roundtable sessions to discuss their vision and aspirations for the ADP, the desired results and how these results can be achieved. Parties also discussed how to enhance ambition, the role of means of implementation and how to strengthen international cooperative initiatives, as well as the elements that could frame the ADP’s work.

The AWG-KP focused on resolving outstanding issues to ensure successful completion of the group’s work in Doha by recommending an amendment to the CMP for adoption. This would allow a second commitment period under the Protocol to start immediately from 1 January 2013. The AWG-KP produced informal papers outlining the elements for a Doha decision adopting amendments to the Kyoto Protocol.

The AWG-LCA continued working on practical solutions to fulfill specific mandates from COP 17. The focus was on outcomes needed to conclude the group’s work in Doha, how to reflect the elements in the final outcome of the AWG-LCA and whether additional work might be required beyond COP 18.

REPORT OF THE DOHA CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE

COP 18 and CMP 8 opened on Monday morning, 26 November 2012. COP 17 President Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, South Africa, urged delegates to: adopt a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; complete work under the AWG-LCA; and find appropriate space to undertake other work under the COP, subsidiary bodies or new institutions. She stated that it would be a “step backwards for the ADP to become the AWG-LCA under a new name.” UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres stressed that COP 18 will be unique in marking the end of the first commitment period and launching the next one and will move the Bali Action Plan from design to full and effective implementation. She urged work on a future framework that ensures equity and responds to science, and challenged delegates to find common ground.

This report summarizes the discussions by the COP, CMP, AWG-LCA, AWG-KP, ADP, SBI and SBSTA based on their respective agendas. Negotiations and outcomes under the COP and CMP on issues forwarded to the SBI, SBSTA, AWG-KP, AWG-LCA and ADP are summarized in the context of negotiations under the relevant subsidiary body.

CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES

On Monday, 26 November, Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attiyah, Deputy Prime Minister, Qatar, was elected COP 18/CMP 8 President by acclamation. He noted the challenge posed by seven bodies convening in Doha and called on delegates to agree to a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, finish work started in Bali and achieve progress on work undertaken in Durban.

ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: Adoption of the agenda: Parties agreed to proceed based on the provisional agenda (FCCC/CP/2012/1), with the exception of the item on the second review of the adequacy of Convention Articles 4(a) and (b), which was held in abeyance.

Rules of Procedure: COP President Al-Attiyah reminded parties of the practice since COP 1 of applying the draft rules of procedure (FCCC/CP/1996/2), with the exception of draft rule 42 on voting. He informed parties that no consensus has been achieved in consultations by the COP 17 President, and parties agreed to apply the draft rules with the exception of draft rule 42. At the closing plenary, COP President Al-Attiyah reported that no consensus was reached during his informal consultations. The COP President will report back to COP 19 if any changes occur.

Election of officers: The COP closing plenary elected members of the COP Bureau: SBSTA Chair Richard Muyungi (Tanzania); SBI Chair Tomasz Chruszczow (Poland); Emmanuel Dumisani Dlamini (Swaziland); Su Wei (China); Claudia Salerno Caldera (Venezuela); Delano Bart (Saint Kitts and Nevis); Gary Cowan (Australia); Nicole Wilke (Germany); Jane J. Chigiyal (Federated States of Micronesia); and Marina Shvangiradze (Georgia) as Rapporteur.

The COP also elected the SBI Bureau, with Robert F. Van Lierop (Suriname) as Vice-Chair and Mabafokeng F. Mahahabisa (Lesotho) as Rapporteur.

The COP also elected officers to the CTCN Advisory Board. Consultations will continue on the outstanding nominations. The list of nominees for the CTCN Advisory Board is available at: http://unfccc.int/files/bodies/election_and_membership/application/pdf/nominations_update_2012_latest.pdf 

Accreditation of observers: The COP agreed to admit the proposed organizations as observers (FCCC/CP/2012/12/Rev.1 and Add.1).

PARTIES’ PROPOSALS UNDER CONVENTION ARTICLE 17: This issue was first taken up by the COP on 28 November. Parties noted proposals by Japan (FCCC/CP/2009/3), Tuvalu (FCCC/CP/2009/4), the US (FCCC/CP/2009/7), Australia (FCCC/CP/2009/5), Costa Rica (FCCC/CP/2009/6) and Grenada (FCCC/CP/2010/3). During the resumed COP closing plenary on Saturday, 8 December, the COP agreed to continue consideration of this issue at its next session.

PARTIES’ PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENTS UNDER CONVENTION ARTICLE 15:Proposal by the Russian Federation: This issue (FCCC/CP/2011/5) was first taken up by the COP plenary on 28 November and subsequently taken up in a contact group facilitated by Javier Díaz (Costa Rica). The COP President reported to the closing plenary on 7 December that parties had not been able to reach agreement. Consideration of the issue will continue at COP 19.

Proposal by Papua New Guinea and Mexico: This issue (FCCC/CP/2011/4/Rev.1) was first taken up by the COP plenary on 28 November. It was subsequently taken up in informal consultations but no agreement was reached. On 7 December, the COP agreed to include this item on the agenda of COP 19. Papua New Guinea highlighted that the “right to vote” in Convention Article 18 is not being realized due to the lack of adoption of the rules of procedure. He reported “growing” support for the proposal to address this issue by developed and developing countries.

FINANCE:This item comprises four sub-items: the work-programme on long-term finance; the Standing Committee report; the Green Climate Fund (GCF) report and COP guidance; and arrangements between the COP and GCF. It was first taken up by the COP on 28 November and was considered in a contact group and informal consultations co-chaired by Kamel Djemouai (Algeria) and Gregory Andrews (Australia). During the second week, informal ministerial consultations were conducted by Mariyam Shakeela (Maldives) and Bruno Oberle (Switzerland). Discussions focused on finance for the period 2013-2020. Many developing country parties called for firm commitments to mobilizing finance together with a pathway to scaling up finance.

Work Programme on Long-term Finance: Co-Chairs of the work programme on long-term finance Zaheer Fakir (South Africa) and Georg Børsting (Norway) presented the workshop report on the work programme on long-term finance (FCCC/CP/2012/3).

Barbados, for the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), suggested that work on long-term finance should focus on: scaling up finance; improving access to finance for developing countries; and ensuring a balance between adaptation and mitigation activities. India said work on long-term finance should ensure consistency with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), and discussions under other Convention bodies.

Japan stated that it would be inappropriate to consider international shipping and aviation a source of long-term climate finance. Japan and China also opposed establishing a high-level expert group, comprising the UNFCCC Secretariat, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), to examine options for ensuring that revenues from international aviation and shipping can be used for climate finance. Saudi Arabia observed that proposed international taxation methods would negatively impact developing countries and pointed to incompatibility of market-based mechanisms with World Trade Organization rules.

The European Union (EU) observed that it was important to recognize that no single source can address climate finance needs. He called for continuing technical work on mobilizing and deploying financial resources more effectively, with work on revenues from international aviation and maritime transport being an important aspect of such work.

Kenya and Uganda called for a clear definition of climate finance. Barbados, for AOSIS, with Colombia, for Chile, Peru, Costa Rica and Guatemala, and others, supported a political process covering the scaling up and mobilization of climate finance, as well as an intensified and more structured work under the Convention, focusing on sources and options for mobilizing climate finance in the short, medium and long term.

COP Decision: In its decision (FCCC/CP/2012/L.16), the COP decides to extend the work programme on long-term finance for one year. The COP invites the COP President to appoint two co-chairs, from a developing and developed country party, for the work programme. It also agrees to continue the existing processes within the Convention for assessing and reviewing developing country parties’ needs for financial resources, including the identification of options for the mobilization of these resources, and their adequacy, predictability, sustainability and accessibility.

Standing Committee Report: Standing Committee Chair Diann Black Layne (Antigua and Barbuda) and Vice-Chair Stefan Schwager (Switzerland) introduced the Standing Committee report (FCCC/CP/2012/4).

COP Decision: In its decision (FCCC/CP/2012/L.16) on the Standing Committee, the COP:

•  welcomes the operationalization of the Standing Committee and the progress achieved;

•  endorses the work programme of the Standing Committee for 2013-2015;

•  welcomes the work on the forum of the Standing Committee and encourages the Standing Committee to facilitate the participation of the private sector, financial institutions and academia in the forum;

•  adopts the revised composition and working modalities of the Standing Committee;

•  decides that the Chair and Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee shall serve as co-chairs of the Standing Committee, effective from the first meeting of the Standing Committee in 2013;

•  decides to rename the committee as the Standing Committee on Finance; and

•  requests the committee, in preparing the first biennial assessment and overview of financial flows, to consider ways of strengthening methodologies for reporting climate finance;

Green Climate Fund (GCF) Report and COP Guidance: GCF Co-Chairs Zaheer Fakir (South Africa) and Ewen McDonald (Australia) introduced the GCF’s report (FCCC/CP/2012/5) during the COP opening plenary. They highlighted the decision to select Songdo, the Republic of Korea, as the host of the GCF.

Barbados, for AOSIS, stressed that the COP should provide further guidance to the GCF Board on how to expedite the operationalization of the Fund and initiate an early and adequate replenishment process. The Philippines, for the Group of 77 and China (G-77/China), supported guidance on issues, such as what the Fund will do and how to consider funding for projects. Colombia, speaking for Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, with Bolivia, Uruguay and Togo, called for the provision of funds to facilitate the operationalization of the GCF. The Republic of Korea, as host of the GCF, expressed commitment to facilitate the establishment of the interim secretariat as soon as possible.

COP Decision:In its decision (FCCC/CP/2012/L.17), the COP requests the GCF Board and the Republic of Korea to: conclude the legal and administrative arrangements for hosting the GCF; ensure that juridical personality and legal capacity are conferred to the GCF; and the necessary privileges and immunities are granted to the GCF and its officials. The COP decides to provide initial guidance to the GCF at COP 19.

The COP requests the GCF Board to report to COP 19 on the implementation of decision 3/CP.17. The COP reaffirms its decision that the interim arrangements should terminate no later than COP 19.

Arrangements between the COP and GCF: On this issue (FCCC/CP/2012/5, FCCC/CP/2012/CRP.1, and FCCC/CP/2012/CRP.4), parties disagreed on which body should be responsible for drafting the arrangements between the GCF and the COP.

The US and Japan stated that the key elements of the arrangements were already agreed on; the GCF has independent juridical authority operating under the guidance of the COP, and is therefore capable of drafting the arrangements. Barbados, for AOSIS, cautioned against reopening the GCF governing instrument. He suggested a process to develop the arrangements with representatives from the COP and the GCF Board. South Africa said the GCF Governing Instrument already includes elements that would allow the work on arrangements to be concluded in Doha. Saudi Arabia, supported by Kenya and Zambia, for the least developed countries (LDCs), expressed concern about the GCF drafting its own accountability relationship, suggesting that the Standing Committee should undertake this task. Colombia, on behalf of Peru and Guatemala, proposed that representatives of the COP, possibly through the Standing Committee and the GCF Board, work on drafting the arrangements. The EU supported developing the arrangements in a cooperative manner and suggested a draft proposal be submitted for consideration by relevant bodies and approval by COP 19.

COP Decision:In its decision (FCCC/CP/2012/L.18), the COP recognizes that Convention Article 11.3, decision 3/CP.17 and the GCF governing instrument form the basis for arrangements between the COP and the GCF to ensure that the GCF is accountable to, and functions under the guidance of, the COP to support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country parties. The COP further requests the Standing Committee and the GCF Board to develop arrangements between the COP and the GCF in accordance with these instruments, for agreement by the GCF Board and subsequent agreement by COP 19.

CLOSING PLENARY: The COP closing plenary first convened late at night on Friday, 7 December. Parties watched a short film by civil society, encouraging delegates to “get involved now” to build a better future for everyone. The COP then considered issues on which agreement had been reached. The plenary was suspended at 12:15 am on Saturday morning, pending consultations on outstanding issues.

The COP closing plenary resumed at 7:00 pm on Saturday, 8 December, to adopt the Doha Climate Gateway package of decisions, without  amendment and subject to approval of the entire package, on: agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan (FCCC/CP/2012/L.4); advancing the Durban Platform (FCCC/CP/2012/L.13); loss and damage (FCCC/CP/2012/L.4/Rev.1); work programme on long-term finance (FCCC/CP/2012/L.15); report of the Standing Committee (FCCC/CP/2012/L.16); report of the GCF (FCCC/CP/2012/L.17); and arrangements between the COP and GCF (FCCC/CP/2012/L.18). The ADP report (FCCC/ADP/2012/L.3) and the AWG-LCA report FCCC/CP/2012/L.14/Rev.1) were also adopted as part of the Doha Climate Gateway package.

After the adoption of the package, a joint COP and CMP plenary was opened for parties to make statements. The US underlined that “much good work” has been accomplished under the AWG-LCA and clarified their interpretation of the Doha outcome. On reference to the CBDR principle in the text on shared vision, the US stated they would not accept the text to the extent it is not read as consistent with the UNFCCC and the Cancun Agreements. On the preambular text in the ADP decision, which references the Convention’s principles, the US stated that this cannot affect the mandate given to the ADP under the Durban Platform and will not be the basis on which the US will engage in the work of the ADP. On unilateral trade measures, the US clarified their interpretation of the wording “of concern” to mean the party that raises the issue.

Algeria, for the G-77/China, called this package a “milestone” for the implementation of a new post-2020 climate regime. She stated that the Doha package, with its “shortcomings,” should be seen as a “delicate balance” and should be considered in its entirety.

The Russian Federation underscored that he had requested the floor before the COP/CMP President gaveled the Doha Climate Gateway package, and stressed his expectation that the President would introduce the proposal submitted by the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus on the CMP outcome to the plenary. President Al-Attiyah responded that this concern and proposal would be reflected in the meeting’s report.

China, on behalf of BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China), said that, although disappointed with certain aspects of the package, members of the group accept the decisions and promised a “proactive approach” to deal with climate change in the future. Australia expressed concern that surplus Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) could be as high as seven billion tons, noting that this puts the environmental integrity of the Kyoto Protocol at risk. He underscored that Australia will not purchase AAUs from the first commitment period and that such AAUs will not be eligible in the domestic emissions trading scheme. The EU, Liechtenstein, Japan, Monaco and Switzerland also stated they would not purchase surplus AAUs carried over from the first commitment period.

Nauru, for AOSIS, lamented that the adopted package is deficient in terms of mitigation ambition and finance, stating that it “only promises that something might materialize in the future.” He further expressed his expectation that the 2014 climate change leaders’ summit announced by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will work to close the ambition gap. He lamented that the outcome “provides little more than a gateway to a long path,” and warned that if delegates take “a wrong turn in the road, this process will collapse and our nations will disappear.”

The EU stated that it will undertake immediate application of the second commitment period, as this is already provided for in EU law. In addition, noting that Protocol Article 4 foresees the possibility of parties fulfilling their commitments jointly, the EU explained that the commitment inscribed in Protocol Annex B for the EU, Croatia and Iceland for the second commitment period is based on the understanding that this commitment will be fulfilled jointly.

Egypt, for the Arab Group, said that decisions taken in Doha represent hope for the future of multilateral action on climate change; noted success on ambitious objectives and the opening the second commitment period; and looked forward to full and continuous implementation of the decisions. Noting that “we are heading towards dangerous territory” by failing to set a pathway toward keeping the global temperature rise below 1.5°C, Swaziland, for the African Group, said that the Doha decisions are in the right direction despite concerns on finance for implementing the Convention between now and 2020.

The Gambia, for the LDCs, said that they came to Doha for a balanced package and lamented that a number of elements have not been addressed. He said that commitments on mitigation are insufficient for closing the ambition gap and expressed disappointment with the lack of detail on 2013-2020 finance.

COP President Al-Attiyah commended the parties’ support of the political initiative to move forward and the negotiators’ flexibility that has “helped us reach solutions.” Recognizing that on some issues it was not possible to achieve common ground, he noted that consensus on AWG-LCA strengthens the conviction that parties are willing to work together, and highlighted agreement on financial resources for the period 2013-2020.

The Philippines, speaking for Like-Minded Developing Countries, expressed concern with “uneven texts” and weak ambition. He also expressed “deep disappointment” that after Doha, finance remains an “empty shell.” He highlighted major deficiencies in the AWG-LCA outcome including on developed country mitigation, comparability of efforts, response measures and finance.

Climate Justice Now said that Doha had neither delivered on an effective and fair deal, nor ensured the required finance for fighting against climate change. He rejected the Doha texts and said the “Doha gateway” is a gateway to climate injustice and climate death. Climate Action Network (CAN) said parties’ attitudes must change to secure a binding deal by 2015. Trade Unions urged for transition to start now. Youth said the Doha Climate Gateway has shut the door on equity.

Noting the submission from Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates (FCCC/CP/2012/MISC.2), the COP then adopted the decision on an economic diversification initiative (FCCC/CP/2012/L.11). The US congratulated the concerned states for this submission, saying it represents “a significant shift” in their positions and efforts to address climate change.

The COP also approved the credentials of delegations (FCCC/CP/2012/7), adopted the reports of SBI 36 and SBI 37 (FCCC/SBI/2012/15 & Adds.1-2; and FCCC/SBI/2012/L.27), adopted the reports of SBSTA 36 and 37 (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/2 and FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.20), and adopted the report of the ADP (FCCC/ADP/2012/L.3).

The COP also adopted a decision on future sessions (FCCC/CP/2012/L.8). In the decision, the COP: accepts the offer by Poland to host COP 19 and CMP 9 in Warsaw from 11-22 November 2013; notes that COP 20 and CMP 10 will be in Latin America and the Caribbean, and invites parties to consult on the hosting of these sessions; and takes note of the offer of France to host COP 21 and CMP 11 in 2015.

The COP then adopted the meeting’s report (FCCC/CP/2012/L.1) and a decision expressing gratitude to Qatar and the people of the city of Doha (FCCC/CP/2012/L.3) for hosting the conference. COP 18 President Al-Attiyah thanked the delegates for their hard work to reach a successful outcome and gaveled the meeting to a close at 9:34 pm.

CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES SERVING AS THE MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THE KYOTO PROTOCOL

Opening the session on 26 November, CMP 8 President Al-Attiyah noted that the AWG-KP is expected to forward to the CMP a set of amendments to the Kyoto Protocol to allow the second commitment period to commence promptly on 1 January 2013. He urged all parties to show creativity and flexibility to ensure that the desired outcome is achieved. AWG-KP Chair Madeleine Diouf (Senegal) highlighted that there are some outstanding issues to be resolved to allow the second commitment period to commence as planned. She said the proposal by the Chair to facilitate negotiations (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/CRP.1) will be the basis of discussions under the AWG-KP, and will be revised as work progresses.

ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS:Agenda and organization of work: On 26 November, the CMP adopted the agenda and organization of work (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/1).

PARTIES’ PROPOSALS TO AMEND THE PROTOCOL: This issue was first take up by the CMP plenary on 28 November. COP President Al-Attiyah noted that 14 proposals to amend the Protocol have been submitted by parties to the CMP (FCCC/KP/CMP/2009/2-13 and FCCC/KP/CMP/2010/3-4), and that this year, a new proposal has been received from Nauru (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/2). Parties agreed to leave the issue open and return to it during the closing plenary. During the resumed CMP closing plenary on Saturday, 8 December, parties agreed that, given that the CMP has now adopted an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, the consideration of this agenda item is complete.

KAZAKHSTAN’S PROPOSAL TO AMEND PROTOCOL ANNEX B: This issue (FCCC/KP/CMP/2010/4) was first taken up by the CMP plenary on 28 November. It was subsequently taken up in informal consultations facilitated by Philip Gwage (Uganda).

CMP Decision:In its decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.3), the CMP, inter alia: welcomes Kazakhstan’s intention to participate as an Annex I party with a commitment inscribed in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol for the second commitment period.

CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM: This issue (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/11) was first taken up by the CMP plenary on 28 November. CDM Executive Board Chair Maosheng Duan (China) presented the Board’s annual report (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/3).

Zambia called for accreditation of additional designated operational entities in Africa, and proposed continued reform of the CDM to address transparency and accountability, and simplify methodologies. Bolivia raised concerns about the CDM’s contribution to technology transfer and capacity building and its probable non-additionality. New Zealand noted that if only parties participating in the second commitment period can access the CDM, the demand for CDM projects is likely to be insufficient. Many parties raised concerns over the drop in Certified Emissions Reduction (CER) prices and made suggestions on how to address it. Venezuela emphasized that the CDM is linked to the level of ambition and is not “just another business opportunity.”

The issue was then further considered in a contact group and informal consultations co-facilitated by Kunihiko Shimada (Japan) and Giza Gaspar Martins (Angola). During the discussions, parties focused on, inter alia: eligibility to participate in the CDM during the Kyoto Protocol second commitment period; the CDM’s 2013 work plan; voluntary cancellation of CERs; issues relating to regional and subregional distribution of CDM projects; and the establishment by parties of CDM stabilization funds. Discussions were based on a draft CDM decision prepared by the Co-Chairs. After lengthy consultations, parties were unable to agree on issues relating to: establishment of CDM stabilization funds; voluntary cancellation of CERs; baselines and additionality; eligibility to participate in the CDM in the second commitment period; and the carry-over of surplus units from the first commitment period.

The bracketed text was forwarded to the CMP for further consideration. On 8 December, the CMP adopted a decision on the issue.

CMP Decision: In its decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.10), the CMP reiterates that the first review of the CDM modalities and procedures will be carried out by CMP 9, and requests SBI 39 to prepare recommendations on possible changes to the modalities and procedures, for consideration by CMP 9. It further requests the CDM Executive Board and the Secretariat to continue seeking ways to streamline the processes for the registration of CDM projects and programmes of activities, and the issuance of CERs, to ensure that the average time between the receipt of a submission and the commencement of the completeness check is less than 15 calendar days.

The CMP further invites parties and institutions wishing to do so to make voluntary contributions to the CDM loan scheme in order to expand the capacity of the scheme to provide loans to support eligible project activities.

JOINT IMPLEMENTATION: This issue was first taken up by the CMP plenary on 28 November. Wolfgang Seidel (Germany), Chair, Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC), presented the JISC’s annual report to the CMP (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/4). He noted that JI is at a critical junction and is facing an “uncertain future,” and highlighted proposals made by the JISC for revising the JI guidelines (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/5).

This issue was further considered in a contact group and informal consultations co-chaired by Balisi Gopolang (Botswana) and Helmut Hojesky (Austria). Discussions focused on the two sub-agenda items on: guidance on JI (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/4); and the JI guidelines (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/5, INF.1 and MISC.1).

CMP Decision: In its decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.7), the CMP, inter alia, requests: the Secretariat to compile a report on possible changes to the JI guidelines, drawing on recommendations made by the JISC, parties, intergovernmental organizations and admitted observer organizations, for consideration by SBI 38; and SBI 38 to prepare recommendations, including draft revised JI guidelines, for consideration by CMP 9. It further agrees, with regard to the review of the JI guidelines, on a set of key attributes that shall characterize the future operation of JI, which includes: a single unified track for JI projects; closely aligned or unified accreditation procedures between JI and the CDM; and an appeals process against decisions of the JISC under the authority of, and accountable to, the CMP.

COMPLIANCE:Compliance Committee Report: This issue (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/6) was taken up by the CMP plenary on 28 November. Compliance Committee Co-Chair Khalid Abuleif (Saudi Arabia) presented the report of the Committee, noting that 2012 was the busiest year to date for the Committee’s Enforcement Branch and a “significant year” for the Facilitative Branch. Ilhomjon Rajabov (Tajikistan) and Christina Voigt (Norway) facilitated informal consultations.

CMP Decision:In its decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.2), the CMP, inter alia:

•  acknowledges the continued interest of the Compliance Committee in having any legal arrangements for privileges and immunities adopted by the CMP cover members and alternate members of the Committee;

•  notes that the JISC is seeking to elaborate modalities and procedures for the implementation of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, which may have implications for the procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol;

•  acknowledges the value to the work of the Compliance Committee of establishing a dialogue with compliance bodies under other treaties to exchange information on compliance-related matters; and

•  notes the conclusions of SBI 36 with respect to the travel-related expenditure of members and alternate members of the Compliance Committee for participation in meetings of constituted bodies established under the Kyoto Protocol.

ADAPTATION FUND:Adaptation Fund Board (AFB) Report: This matter (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/10) was first considered in the CMP plenary on 28 November. It was further considered in contact group discussions. AFB Chair Luis Santos (Uruguay) introduced the AFB report (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/7). He highlighted a significant increase in the number of adaptation projects financed and national implementing entities accredited. He further noted a drop in the price of CERs, observing that this could jeopardize the fund’s existence. He urged Annex I parties to make financial contributions to avoid compromising the Fund’s capacity to meet the needs of vulnerable countries.

Jamaica, supported by Sudan, the Philippines, Vanuatu and Zambia, called on the CMP to facilitate mobilization of additional funds during CMP 8. Pointing to the limitations of the carbon market, Burkina Faso suggested exploring ways to institutionalize predictable funding sources. India noted that the record of Annex I countries leaves “no reason for optimism” on their willingness to voluntarily scale up contributions to the Adaptation Fund. He suggested allocating a share of the proceeds from JI and emissions trading to the Adaptation Fund. Noting that CERs are an important source for the Fund, New Zealand encouraged parties to take into consideration during discussions on eligibility, that sufficient demand for the CDM will provide financial resources for the fund.

CMP Decision:In its decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.8), the CMP notes with concern issues related to the sustainability, adequacy and predictability of funding from the Adaptation Fund based on the current uncertainty on the CER prices and the continuation of the Adaptation Fund during and beyond the second commitment period. The CMP requests the Adaptation Fund Board to report to SBI 38 on the status of resources of the fund, trends in the flow of resources and any identifiable causes of these trends. The CMP decides to consider at CMP 9 means to enhance the sustainability, adequacy and predictability of these resources, including the potential to diversify revenue streams of the Adaptation Fund. The CMP requeststhe Secretariat to prepare a technical paper, based on the experiences of bodies under the Convention and the wider UN system, on the process of selecting host institutions for entities under the Convention and the wider UN system, for consideration by SBI 38.

ADMINISTRATIVE, FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MATTERS: Privileges and immunities: On 28 November, the CMP President noted that CMP 2 had requested the SBI to consider this issue. He further noted that the SBI concluded its discussions at SBI 36 and forwarded draft treaty arrangements for adoption by CMP 8. He requested Javier Diaz (Costa Rica) to facilitate informal consultations. The CMP adopted draft conclusions on 8 December.

CMP Conclusions:In its conclusions (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.6), the CMP takes note of the draft treaty arrangements and requests the SBI to consider this matter at its next session. The CMP invites the COP to consider the issue and decides that the CMP will continue consideration at CMP 9.

CLOSING PLENARY: The CMP closing plenary first convened at 12:15 am on Saturday, 8 December, to consider issues where agreement had been reached. The CMP closing plenary resumed at 7:00 pm to adopt Protocol amendments and decisions related to the second commitment period as part of the package of decisions known as the Doha Climate Gateway. The CMP approved the outcome of the work of the AWG-KP (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.9) and implications of the decisions 2/CMP.7 to 5/CMP.7 (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.4/Rev.1) without amendment and conditional on the approval of the entire package of decisions under the Doha Climate Gateway.

The CMP also approved the credentials (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/12, with the addition of Burundi, adopted the reports of SBSTA 36 and SBSTA 37 (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/2 and FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.20), and adopted the reports of SBI 36 and SBI 37 (FCCC/SBI/2012/15 & Adds. 1-2; and FCCC/SBI/2012/L.27). The CMP elected officers to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board, Adaptation Fund Board, Compliance Committee and Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee. The CMP Vice-President urged parties to submit nominations that are still pending.

The CMP then adopted the report of the meeting (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.1) and a decision on the expression of gratitude to the government of Qatar and the people of the city of Doha submitted by Poland (FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.5). The CMP plenary closed at 9:48 pm.

COP 18 AND CMP 8 JOINT HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT

On 4 December, the COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment opened. UNFCCC Executive Secretary Figueres underscored that Doha needs to ensure: agreement on an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol; a clear path on climate finance; effective Review of the long-term global goal; an urgent response to the widening emissions gap; and a firm foundation for a long-term framework applicable to all, equitably instituted and responsive to science.

COP 18/CMP 8 President Al-Attiyah urged parties to work together towards mutual understanding and to ensure a balanced package, highlighting climate change as one of the most pressing challenges of our time.

Vuk Jeremić, President of the UN General Assembly, stated that addressing climate change must become a “core national interest” of every UN member state. He outlined plans to schedule a high-level thematic debate on climate change, green energy and water sustainability during the resumed 67th session of the UN General Assembly.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon underscored that there should be no illusion that this is a crisis. He outlined five deliverables from Doha: adopting a ratifiable second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; making progress on long-term climate finance; working to fully equip institutions supporting mitigation and adaptation by developing countries; keeping negotiations on a legally-binding instrument on track; and showing determination to act on the gap between the current mitigation pledges and what is required to achieve the 2°C target.

H.H. Sabah IV Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, noted that the sizeable high-level participation in the conference reflects recognition by the international community of climate change as a pressing issue. He called for decisions to pave the way for long-term cooperation through: ensuring the effective implementation of the Bali Action Plan and all its elements; adopting a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; not imposing new commitments on developing countries; and backing voluntary actions by developing countries with finance and technology transfer from developed countries.

H.H. Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Emir of Qatar, called for: epitomizing the concept of interdependence; reaching a practical and effective agreement with flexible solutions; and finding equilibrium between the needs of countries and communities for energy on the one hand, and the requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the other hand.

The high-level segment continued until 7 December with national statements and statements by observer organizations. A webcast of the statements is available at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/doha_nov_2012/meeting/6815/php/view/webcasts.php

AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON LONG-TERM COOPERATIVE ACTION UNDER THE UNFCCC

The resumed 15th session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the UNFCCC (AWG-LCA 15) opened on 27 November with Aysar Tayeb (Saudi Arabia) continuing as Chair and Mark Pallemaerts (Belgium) continuing as Vice-Chair.

Many developing countries highlighted the need to provide clarity on mid-term finance. The Umbrella Group urged transition to a full implementation phase and emphasized that the fast-start finance commitment has been collectively surpassed.  The EU stressed the continued provision of climate finance after 2012 and work to scale up finance towards 2020. Peru, for Colombia, Chile, Costa Rica and Panama, identified the need to make progress in defining the next steps for implementation and close the AWG-LCA negotiating track. He supported resolving pending issues at COP 18 and, if necessary, delegating specific tasks to the subsidiary bodies (SBs) and other processes. Swaziland, for the African Group, said the Doha meeting must result in agreement on: a comparability and compliance framework for developed countries ’ mitigation efforts; and clear mid-term targets for finance. Nauru, for AOSIS, suggested focusing on the work mandated in Durban, including on a science-based Review that is narrow in scope. The Gambia, for the LDCs, said parties in Doha must establish a separate expert body for the Review to feed into the ADP, as well as a platform for developing common accounting rules. China, for BASIC, emphasized that a successful completion of the AWG-LCA must address all elements of the Bali Action Plan and must not leave key issues off the table, such as equitable access to sustainable development and intellectual property rights (IPRs). Egypt, for the Arab Group, suggested working towards agreement on outstanding issues and, where no agreement is reached, to consider transferring issues to other Convention bodies .

PREPARATION OF AN AGREED COMPREHENSIVE AND BALANCED OUTCOME FOR COP 18: On 27 November, Chair Tayeb introduced an informal overview text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2012/CRP.3), explaining that it is based on intersessional consultations. Parties’ views diverged on the text. China, the Philippines, the Arab Group and others supported using the text as a basis for further work, while the Umbrella Group, the Environmental Integrity Group (EIG), the EU, Canada and others opposed this.

The AWG-LCA began working through spin-off groups on REDD+, developing country mitigation, developed country mitigation, sectoral approaches, market and non-market approaches, shared vision and Review. In parallel, Chair Tayeb consulted on the other AWG-LCA agenda items, including finance, technology transfer, adaptation, capacity building and response measures. During the second week, the AWG-LCA also worked through informal consultations facilitated by Vice-Chair Pallemaerts, break-out groups, and informal ministerial consultations.

On Monday, 3 December, parties discussed a new text. Chair Tayeb indicated that it was “an unedited compilation of papers” from the spin-off groups, except for those groups where there was no agreement to have a text. Algeria, for the G-77/China, expressed disappointment, noting that the text is “unbalanced,” failing to reflect the main elements of the Bali Action Plan. Nicaragua, for Like-Minded Developing Countries, with many other developing countries, stressed the need for text on adaptation, finance, technology and capacity building. Kenya, for the African Group, identified the inclusion of key elements of the Bali Action Plan as a precondition for discussions. The Philippines, the United Arab Emirates and others lamented lack of clarity on the means of implementation. Bolivia objected to the “market-oriented” focus of the text. South Africa and others emphasized that the closing text of the AWG-LCA must encompass all issues under the AWG-LCA’s mandate, and that some issues require more elaboration. The US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand emphasized the importance of recognizing progress made under the AWG-LCA, including the various new institutional arrangements established. Several developed countries emphasized that discussions on issues, including adaptation and finance, will continue under other processes after the termination of the AWG-LCA.

Informal consultations under the AWG-LCA continued on 4 December and Chair Tayeb indicated that finance will be taken up in consultations by Ministers Mariyam Shakeela (Maldives) and Bruno Oberle (Switzerland). On 5 December, Chair Tayeb reported to the informal stocktaking plenary on texts that capture the status of discussion under each AWG-LCA agenda item with a view to providing parties with a complete overview. He explained that the AWG-LCA will continue to work through a single informal group throughout the evening with a view to making progress towards a more streamlined text by the following day. In the evening of 6 December, Chair Tayeb reported good progress on all elements, while indicating that there are still areas that require streamlining. He expressed hope that all elements would be brought together in one document “by some time tonight.”

At the AWG-LCA closing plenary in the evening of 7 December, Chair Tayeb thanked delegates for their “continuous work” which resulted in text on the AWG-LCA agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan (FCCC/AWGLCA/2012/L.4). He reported that he had heard “different concerns” about the text, which he said indicated a “certain degree of balance” and that the text was a good basis for the agreed outcome. He reminded parties that the AWG-LCA text is part of an overall package in Doha. With that, Chair Tayeb proposed, and parties agreed, to forward the outcome of the AWG-LCA to the COP for its further consideration and adoption.

After further informal consultations, in the evening of 8 December, the COP adopted the agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan (FCCC/CP/2012/L.14/Rev.1) as part of the Doha Climate Gateway and the AWG-LCA terminated its work. The final outcomes from the AWG-LCA’s work under the Bali Action Plan are summarized below.

Shared Vision: This issue was addressed by a spin-off group facilitated by Zou Ji (China). These consultations focused on the development of: a process to explore the numbers for a global goal for emission reductions and a timeframe for the peaking of global emissions, together with the implications of these numbers; and a process to consider equitable access to sustainable development.

During the AWG-LCA closing plenary on 7 December, many parties expressed concerns over the shared vision text. The EU expressed disappointment that consultations had yielded “no progress.” Egypt requested references to next steps in the text. The US opposed the referencing of equity and the CBDR principle. During the COP closing plenary, the US asked to reflect in the meeting’s report that it accepted this text “to the extent that it is not read in a matter that is inconsistent with the Convention or the Cancun agreements.”

Final Outcome: The COP decides that parties will urgently work toward the deep reduction in global GHG emissions required to hold the global average temperature to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to attain a global peaking of global GHG emissions as soon as possible, consistent with science and the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, reaffirming that the time frame for peaking will be longer in developing countries. The COP further decides that efforts should be undertaken on the basis of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and the provision of finance, technology transfer and capacity building to developing countries to support mitigation and adaptation, and take into account the imperatives of equitable access to sustainable development, the survival of countries and protecting the integrity of Mother Earth.

Mitigation: Developed Country Mitigation:Parties discussed this issue in a spin-off group and in informal, open-ended consultations conducted by the AWG-LCA Chair. Negotiations were based on non-papers and parties’ submissions.

The main issues included the removal of conditions associated with developed country mitigation pledges, and the establishment of a work programme to continue discussions on the issue after the closure of the AWG-LCA. Many developing countries urged developed countries to move to the higher end of their pledges, highlighting the need to present their targets as a single number from a common base year of 1990, expressed as a carbon budget in tons of carbon dioxide equivalent over a period of time until 2020.

Different groups of developed country parties presented proposals about a work programme aimed at clarifying assumptions underlying the pledges from 2013 to 2014, before the implementation of reporting requirements already established from 2015. A number of developing countries supported that the work programme be aimed at removing conditionalities, raising ambition and developing common accounting rules, including a common base year. Parties eventually agreed to refer to the development of “common elements.” Some parties supported that the work programme last only one year and deliver results in an expedited manner. Parties discussed whether to place the work programme under the SBSTA or the SBI, and ultimately agreed that the work programme should be placed under the SBSTA.

Final Outcome: The COP:

•  urges developed country parties to increase the ambition of their quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets, with a view to reducing their aggregate anthropogenic GHG emissions to a level consistent with the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report;

•  decides to establish a work programme under the SBSTA to commence in 2013 and end in 2014, to continue clarifying the targets, with a view to: identifying common elements for measuring the progress made towards the achievement of the targets; and ensuring the comparability of efforts among developed countries, taking into account differences in their national circumstances;

•  requests parties’ submissions on their views on the work programme by 25 March 2013;

•  requeststhe Secretariat to annually update a technical paper on the process of clarifying the targets based on information provided by developed country parties in relation to their targets; and

•  requeststhe SBSTA to report on the progress of the work programme to COP 19 and on the outcome of the work programme to be considered by COP 20.

Developing Country Mitigation:Parties discussed this issue in a spin-off group and in informal, open-ended consultations conducted by the AWG-LCA Chair. Negotiations were based on non-papers and parties’ submissions.

The main issues discussed included the establishment of a work programme to continue discussions to clarify the underlying assumptions for developing countries’ pledges after the closure of the AWG-LCA, as well as the compilation of relevant information on developing countries’ pledges. Parties also had divergent views on the organization of regional technical workshops to prepare technical material to build capacity in the preparation, submission and implementation of NAMAs, and on the formulation of low-emission development strategies. Parties eventually agreed that these activities should be performed upon request by “interested” developing countries.

Other contentious issues included whether and how to request the Secretariat to prepare a compilation of the outcomes of the process to further understanding of the diversity of mitigation actions by developing country parties, with some countries supporting that the Secretariat prepare a compilation of the information, and others supporting a technical paper that synthesizes the information. While some parties initially supported that the SBSTA develop guidelines for MRV of support for the preparation and implementation of NAMAs and for the provision of support through the Registry, parties eventually agreed to remove the reference.

Final Outcome: The COP, inter alia:

•  decidesto establish a work programme to commence in 2013 and end in 2014, to further understanding of the diversity of NAMAs under the SBI, including on: regarding the underlying assumptions and methodologies; need for financial, technological and capacity-building support for the preparation and implementation of NAMAs; and the matching of NAMAs with support;

•  requests the SBI to report on progress to COP 19 and on the outcome to COP 20; and

•  requests the Secretariat, at the request of interested developing country parties, to organize regional technical workshops and to prepare technical material to build capacity in the preparation, submission and implementation of NAMAs, and in the formulation of low-emission development strategies.

REDD+: Parties discussed this issue in a spin-off group and in informal, open-ended consultations conducted by the AWG-LCA Chair. Negotiations were based on non-papers and parties’ submissions.

A group of parties, opposed by a number of other countries, proposed the establishment of a REDD+ Committee to mainstream the implementation of REDD+ activities and ensure consistency of financial resources mobilization. Despite some parties’ expressed opposition to creating new institutions, parties also discussed the possibility of establishing a governing body under the authority of the COP to promote and coordinate REDD+ activities. Parties eventually agreed that SBI 39 and SBSTA 39 should initiate a process to address the issue of support for REDD+ activities.

Developed countries emphasized the need to consider non-carbon benefits in REDD+ implementation and suggested a work programme to consider options for scaling up finance for REDD+ activities, taking into account non-carbon benefits. Some countries opposed, noting difficulties and the high amount of investment requirement in the measurement of such benefits. Parties eventually agreed to initiate work on methodological issues related to non-carbon benefits for consideration by COP 19. Another controversial issue was how to refer to the need for additional financial support for REDD+ activities.

Final Outcome: The COP, inter alia:

•  decidesto undertake a work programme on results-based finance in 2013 to end by COP 19, including two in-session workshops, to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 70 (REDD+ activities);

•  decidesthat the aim of the work programme is to contribute to the ongoing efforts to scale up and improve the effectiveness of finance for REDD+ activities, taking into account a wide variety of sources; and

•  requests SBSTA 38 to consider how non-market-based approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches, could be developed; and initiate work on methodological issues related to non-carbon benefits resulting from REDD+ activities, for reporting to COP 19.

The COP also:

•  recognizes the need to improve the coordination of support for REDD+ activities, and to provide adequate and predictable support, including financial resources and technical and technological support, to developing country parties for implementation of those activities;

•  requests the SBs at their 39th session to jointly initiate a process for addressing the need to improve the coordination of support for REDD+ activities, and to consider existing institutional arrangements or potential governance alternatives and to make recommendations to COP 19; and

•  invites submissions of views by parties and observer organizations by 25 March 2013.

Sectoral approaches: Parties discussed this issue in a spin-off group, as well as later on in the context of the informal open-ended consultations conducted by the AWG-LCA Chair.

Many parties highlighted the need to avoid unilateral measures to address emissions from international aviation and maritime transport. Some parties emphasized that this issue should be considered in a multilateral manner, working through ICAO and IMO. A number of parties also supported inviting the ICAO and IMO Secretariats to continue to report at future SBSTA sessions.

Final Outcome: No text on sectoral approaches was included in the COP decision on the AWG-LCA outcome.

Market and non-market approaches:  This issue was considered in informal consultations facilitated by Alexa Kleysteuber (Chile).

The EU highlighted specific tasks in the AWG-LCA’s mandate, saying that no decision on market approaches would mean there is no process to consider the issue after Doha. Venezuela stressed that the text on paragraph 1(b)(v) of the Bali Action Plan (market and non-market approaches) had been rejected by many developing countries during informal consultations, and objected to presenting the text as the basis for further negotiations. Bolivia emphasized concerns over market mechanisms, including double counting and non-additionality, noting that these could increase emissions.

During the AWG-LCA stocktaking plenary on 1 December, Facilitator Kleysteuber reported positive progress and constructive discussions on the framework for various approaches and the new market mechanism, highlighting that divergence remains on both issues and the relationship between them.

Final Outcome: The COP acknowledges that parties may develop and implement various approaches for mitigation, including opportunities for using markets and non-markets, and that such approaches must meet appropriate standards. It further requests the SBSTA, with a view to recommending draft decisions to COP 19, to conduct separate work programmes to elaborate:

•  a framework for such approaches, drawing on the work of the AWG-LCA on this matter;

•  non-market-based approaches; and

•  modalities and procedures for the new market-based mechanism defined in decision 2/CP.17.

Adaptation: This issue (FCCC/AWGLCA/2012/CRP.2) was addressed in an informal group facilitated by AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb. Many developing countries repeatedly identified adaptation as one of the crucial issues that must be addressed. While many parties acknowledged the progress on adaptation issues since the adoption of the Bali Action Plan, including the establishment of the Adaptation Committee and a process to consider national adaptation plans, some developing countries pointed to outstanding elements under the Bali mandate, including: national-level institutions and regional centers; linking adaptation to other instruments under the Convention; and means of implementation.

Final Outcome: The COP, inter alia:

•  decides that the COP, its SBs and other bodies under the Convention will continue to work to enhance action on adaptation;

•  decides to give consideration to issues relating to the coherence of the action of, and support provided to, developing country parties, the engagement of regional centers and networks, and the promotion of livelihoods and economic diversification to build resilience in the context of planning, prioritizing and implementing adaptation actions; and

•  requests the Adaptation Committee to consider the establishment of an annual adaptation forum to raise awareness and ambition with regard to adaptation.

Technology: Parties discussed this issue in the context of the informal open-ended consultations conducted by the AWG-LCA Chair.

Discussions addressed linkages between the CTCN and the TEC, and the Convention’s financial mechanism; the role of the TEC; and the potential consideration of issues related to IPRs by the TEC. Some developing countries supported that the TEC continue work on issues related to IPRs, while